Many people’s first foray into Tornado’s concurrency looks something like this:
class BadExampleHandler(RequestHandler): def get(self): for i in range(5): print(i) time.sleep(1)
Fetch this handler twice at the same time and you’ll see that the second
five-second countdown doesn’t start until the first one has completely
finished. The reason for this is that
time.sleep is a blocking
function: it doesn’t allow control to return to the
IOLoop so that other
handlers can be run.
time.sleep is really just a placeholder in these examples,
the point is to show what happens when something in a handler gets slow.
No matter what the real code is doing, to achieve concurrency blocking
code must be replaced with non-blocking equivalents. This means one of three things:
class CoroutineSleepHandler(RequestHandler): @gen.coroutine def get(self): for i in range(5): print(i) yield gen.sleep(1)
When this option is available, it is usually the best approach. See the Tornado wiki for links to asynchronous libraries that may be useful.
Find a callback-based equivalent. Similar to the first option, callback-based libraries are available for many tasks, although they are slightly more complicated to use than a library designed for coroutines. These are typically used with
tornado.gen.Taskas an adapter:
class CoroutineTimeoutHandler(RequestHandler): @gen.coroutine def get(self): io_loop = IOLoop.current() for i in range(5): print(i) yield gen.Task(io_loop.add_timeout, io_loop.time() + 1)
Again, the Tornado wiki can be useful to find suitable libraries.
Run the blocking code on another thread. When asynchronous libraries are not available,
concurrent.futures.ThreadPoolExecutorcan be used to run any blocking code on another thread. This is a universal solution that can be used for any blocking function whether an asynchronous counterpart exists or not:
executor = concurrent.futures.ThreadPoolExecutor(8) class ThreadPoolHandler(RequestHandler): @gen.coroutine def get(self): for i in range(5): print(i) yield executor.submit(time.sleep, 1)
See the Asynchronous I/O chapter of the Tornado user’s guide for more on blocking and asynchronous functions.
Even when a handler is asynchronous and non-blocking, it can be surprisingly tricky to verify this. Browsers will recognize that you are trying to load the same page in two different tabs and delay the second request until the first has finished. To work around this and see that the server is in fact working in parallel, do one of two things:
- Add something to your urls to make them unique. Instead of
http://localhost:8888in both tabs, load
http://localhost:8888/?x=1in one and
http://localhost:8888/?x=2in the other.
- Use two different browsers. For example, Firefox will be able to load a url even while that same url is being loaded in a Chrome tab.